Hard Water - The most common problem associated with ground water is hard water, which is caused when there is an abundance of calcium or magnesium. Hard water causes no health problems but can cause soap curds to form on pipes and plumbing fixtures. A water softener usually solves the problem.
Sulfur or Rotten Egg Smell - A rotten egg smell is often associated with sulfur in water. Sulfides can also darken the water and hurt your plumbing. Chlorination, reverse osmosis systems, or a negative-ion exchanger are effective in combating sulfur. These solutions are typically available through your local plumber.
Yield - Yield is the amount of water produced by a well. The quantity of water can be experessed in rates of gallons per minute (also GPM), per hour, or per day. Typically, a 5 GPM well is the minimum acceptable standard.
Well Casing - The well casing is the tubular structer (pipe) placed in the drilled hole to maintain the well opening. The casing also confines the ground water to its zone underground and prevents contaminants from mixing with the water.
Drop Pipe - The drop pipe runs down through the center of the casing and suspends the pump and motor, which produce the water, which in turn is pumped up through the well pipe to your home.
Well Screens - Well screens are filtering devices at the bottom of the casing. They allow water to move through the well, while keeping out most of the gravel and sand from entering the system.
Well Cap - On top of the casing will be a well cap, which should fit snugly so debris, insects, or small animals can't find their way into the well system. take care in working or mowing around your well. A damaged casing could jeopardize the sanitary protection of your well. Do not pile snow, leaves, or other materials around your well.
Grouting - Grouting is a cement-like fluid or Bentonite slurry injected into the hole to protect the well casing. It helps prevent corrosion and infiltration of contaminants.